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Methods to reduce increased fluid volume, or swelling, were evaluated as short- and long-term interventions. Forearm and hand volumes were measured in 45 fit and healthy subjects using a water displacement device with previously established reliability. Volumes were measured before and after 2 hours of recumbency and before and after overnight sleep under different conditions of arm elevation or head-up tilt. No arms-at-side lying-down position, whether after 2 hours awake or after overnight sleep or with bed-head elevated or not, resulted in significant changes in forearm and hand volume. Only 2 hours in a supine lying-down position with 30° of arm elevation caused a significant effect, with an average decrease of 51 ml in forearm and hand volume.
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