- •Scapular mobility is uniquely challenging to assess and currently there is no reliable goniometric technique described in the literature to measure scapular protraction and retraction.
- •The current study examined intra and inter-rater reliability of a goniometric technique using the superior angle and acromion as landmarks to measure the position of the scapula relative to the frontal plane.
- •SEM for repeat measures by the expert and novice raters was < 4.5° and < 3.9°respectively, and SEM between evaluators was < 5.0°, demonstrating absolute reliability similar to that of other goniometric assessments.
- •Minimum detectable change (MDC) values as a percentage of the mean (% MDC), reflecting the degree of measurement error as a percentage of the available motion, ranged between 15.9-43.7% for intra-rater reliability and 21.9-52.8% for inter-rater reliability.
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Journal of Hand Therapy
- Joint Motion and Function Assessment: A Research-Based Practical Guide.Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia2005
- Proposed method for goniometric measurement of scapular protraction and retraction.J Hand Ther. 2021; 34: 148-150https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jht.2019.02.002
- Scapular kinematics during humeral elevation in adults and children.Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2005; 20: 600-606https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2005.03.002
- The Mechanics and Pathomechanics of Human Movement.3rd ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA2017
- Effect of scapular protraction and retraction on isometric shoulder elevation strength.Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002; 83: 367-370https://doi.org/10.1053/apmr.2002.29666
- Range of motion requirements for upper-limb activities of daily living.Am J Occup Ther. 2016; 70 (7001350010p1-7001350010p10)https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2016.015487
American Occupational Therapy Association. Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain & Process. 4th ed. Am J Occup Ther. 2014;70(Suppl. 2): 7412410010. doi:10.5014/ajot.2020.74S2001.
- The role of the scapula.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1993; 18: 386-391https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.19126.96.36.1996
- Pelczar-Pieniazek M. Upper limb joint mobility ranges during activities of daily living determined by three-dimensional motion analysis–preliminary report.Ortop Traumatol Rehabil. 2007; 9: 413-422
- Shoulder and elbow range of motion for the performance of activities of daily living: A systematic review.Physiother Theory Pract. 2018; 34: 505-528https://doi.org/10.1080/09593985.2017.1422206
- The role of the scapula in athletic shoulder function.Am J Sports Med. 1998; 26: 325-337https://doi.org/10.1177/03635465980260022801
- Inter- and intrarater reliability of modified lateral scapular slide test in healthy athletic men.Biomed Res Int. 2014; (2014)384149https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/384149
- To Evaluate Scapulohumeral Rhythm in Scapular Dyskinesia in Software Professionals with Neck Pain.Indian J Physiother Occup Ther. 2020; 14: 207-212https://doi.org/10.5958/0973-5674.2020.00037.4
- Validation of a video-based motion analysis technique in 3-D dynamic scapular kinematic measurements.J Biomech. 2012; 45: 2462-2466https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.06.025
- A method for the measurement of three-dimensional scapular movement.Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 1993; 8: 269-273https://doi.org/10.1016/0268-0033(93)90037-I
Short N, Almonreoder T, Mays M, Baist A, Clifton T, Horty A, Kosty M, Olson C, & Patel R. Inter-rater reliability of a novel goniometric technique to measure scapular protraction and retraction. Am J Occ Ther. In press.
- Intratester and intertester reliability of goniometric measurement of passive lateral shoulder rotation.J Hand Ther. 1999; 12: 187-192https://doi.org/10.1016/s0894-1130(99)80045-3
- Intraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater reliability.Psychol Methods. 1996; 1: 30-46
- A guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research.J Chiropr Med. 2016; 15: 155-163
- The test-retest reliability and the minimal detectable change of the Purdue pegboard test in schizophrenia.J Formos Med Assoc. 2013; 112: 332-337
- Measuring hand dexterity in people with Parkinson's disease: reliability of pegboard tests.Am J Occup Ther. 2019; 737304205050p8
- Minimal detectable difference of the finger and wrist range of motion: comparison of goniometry and 3D motion analysis.J Ortho Surg Res. 2019; 14: 1-10
JHT Read for Credit
Quiz: # 851
- # 1.The two landmarks were the
- a.the lateral angle and the acromion
- b.acromion and the superior angle
- c.the A/C joint and the inferior angle
- d.scapular notch and the acromion
- # 2.Subjects were
- a.post CVA patients
- b.all actual patients
- c.50% normal and 50% actual patients
- d.all normals
- # 3.The authors cited the standard of less than _______ of variance as acceptable reliability
- # 4.ROM was measured with
- b.a plastic 12” goniometer
- c.a stainless steel 18” new age goniometer
- d.X-ray assisted goniometric placement
- # 5.The authors were reluctant to claim goniometry reliable for measuring scapular retraction and protraction