Scientific/Clinical Article| Volume 33, ISSUE 4, P553-561, October 2020

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Standardized translated instruction versus spontaneously translated instruction: Test-retest and interrater reliability of a hand function test

  • Ying Xin Lim
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Occupational Therapy Program, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Rehabilitative Services Department, Subang Jaya Medical Centre, Subang Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
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  • Siaw Chui Chai
    Corresponding author. Faculty of Health Sciences, Occupational Therapy Program, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Tel.: +603 9289 7047.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Occupational Therapy Program, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
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Published:March 04, 2020DOI:


      Study Design

      Cross-sectional study.


      Adhering to test administration and standardized instructions is important for attainment of accurate and reliable results in performance-based tests.

      Purpose of the Study

      To determine test-retest and interrater reliability of standardized translated instruction (St-TI) and spontaneously translated instruction (Sp-TI) of a hand function test.


      Four raters and seventy-two subjects were divided into 2 groups: St-TI group, direct administration of the Hong Kong Chinese version of the Jebsen Hand Function Test to subjects by raters; and Sp-TI group, spontaneously translating the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test from English into Chinese by raters. Test-retest and interrater reliability were calculated based on instruction time by the rater and performance time by the subject.


      Test-retest and interrater reliability of instruction time by rater for St-TI has intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.35 to 0.70 and 0.24 to 0.55, respectively, whereas that for Sp-TI was −0.50 to 0.18 and −0.09 to 0.51, respectively. Test-retest and interrater reliability of performance time by subject for St-TI was 0.56 to 0.84 and 0.33 to 0.78, respectively, whereas that for Sp-TI was 0.54 to 0.87 and 0.35 to 0.77, respectively. Sp-TI had two test-retest minimal detectable change percent values that fell within the acceptable range (subtest 3 = 21.9% and subtest 6 = 25.7%).


      Instruction time by rater for Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test subtests had generally poor to moderate test-retest and interrater reliability for both St-TI and Sp-TI. Performance time by subject generally had moderate to good reliability, except for St-TI with poor to good interrater reliability.


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      JHT Read for Credit

      Quiz: # 720

      Record your answers on the Return Answer Form found on the tear-out coupon at the back of this issue or to complete online and use a credit card, go to There is only one best answer for each question.
      • # 1.
        The purpose of the study was to determine the _______________ of a Chinese version of the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function test
        • a.
        • b.
          ease of clinical administration
        • c.
        • d.
      • # 2.
        The primary statistical measure was
        • a.
          an ICC
        • b.
          a student T test
        • c.
          an ANOVA
        • d.
          the Pearson Coefficient
      • # 3.
        _________ of the MDC% values fell within the acceptable range
        • a.
        • b.
        • c.
        • d.
      • # 4.
        Non-dominant hands were
        • a.
          tested in the same way as the dominant hands
        • b.
          only tested in a cursory manner
        • c.
          not tested
        • d.
          found to be essentially the same as the dominant hands
      • # 5.
        Reliability was determined to be only moderate
        • a.
          not true
        • b.
      When submitting to the HTCC for re-certification, please batch your JHT RFC certificates in groups of 3 or more to get full credit.