Cross-sectional research design.
Clinical practice continues to use normative data for grip and pinch measurements that were established in 1985. There is no updated norms despite different hand usage patterns in today's society.
Purpose of the Study
Measuring and comparing grip and pinch strengths with normative data is a valid method to determine hand function. This research was implemented to compare the grip and pinch measurements obtained from healthy millennials to the established norms and to describe hand usage patterns for millennials.
Grip and lateral pinch measurements were obtained from a sample of 237 healthy millennials (ages 20-34 years).
Strength scores were statistically lower that older normative data in all millennial grip strengths, with the exception of the women in the age group of 30-34 years. Specifically, this statistically significant trend was observed in all male grip strengths, as well as in women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). However, the lateral pinch data reflected was similar to the older norms with variances of 0.5-1 kg.
Current data reflect statistically significant differences from the norms for all male grip measurements, as well as for women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). No statistical significance was observed in the independent-sample t tests for the lateral pinch in men of all age groups. Statistical significance was noted for lateral pinch for female age groups for the left hand (20-24 years) and for bilateral lateral pinches (30-34 years).
Level of evidence
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
One-time access price info
- For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
- For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'
Subscribe:Subscribe to Journal of Hand Therapy
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- A review of the measurement of grip strength in clinical and epidemiological studies: towards a standardised approach.Age Ageing. 2011; 40: 423-429
- Normative data on hand grip strength in a Greek adult population.Int Orthop. 2008; 33: 713-717
- Comparison of hand dynamometers in elderly people.J Nutr Health Aging. 2009; 13: 907-912
- Hand-grip dynamometry predicts future outcomes in aging adults.J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2008; 31: 3-10
- Comparison of 2 frailty indexes for prediction of falls, disability, fractures, and death in older women.Arch Intern Med. 2008; 168: 382-389
- Significance of grip strength in geriatric rehabilitation: a pilot study.Dept Phys Med Rehabil. 2006; 17: 5-7
- Handgrip strength and endurance as a predictor of postoperative morbidity in surgical patients: can it serve as a simple bedside test?.Int Surg. 2004; 89: 115-121
- Measurement error in grip and pinch force measurements in patients with hand injuries.Phys Ther. 2003; 83: 806-815
- Taylor P. Keeter S. Millennials: A Portrait of Generation Next. 2010 (Washington DC. Retrieved from: http://www.pewresearch.org/millennials/)
- Neuropsychological assessment: contexts for contemporary clinical practice.Neuropsychol Assess Clin Prac. 2000; : 26-47
- Interrater reliability of students using hand and pinch dynamometers.Am J Occup Ther. 2009; 63: 193-197
- Living systematic reviews: an emerging opportunity to narrow the evidence-practice gap.PLoS Med. 2014; 11: e1001603
- Grip and pinch strength: normative data for healthy Indian adults.Hand Therapy. 2013; 18: 11-16
- Measurement properties of the MacHANd performance assessment: a pilot study.Can J Occup Ther. 2012; 79: 303-308
- Occupational changes during the 20th century.Mon Labor Rev. 2006; March: 35-57
- Prediction of grip and key pinch strength in 978 healthy subjects.BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010; 11: 94
Pew Research Center, A. Mitchell, T. Rosentiel and L. Christian, Mobile devices and news consumption: Some good signs for journalism. Washington, DC. Available from: http://www.stateofthemedia.org/2012/mobile-devices-and-news-consumption-some-good-signs-for-journalism/
Depoy E, Gitlin LN. Boundary setting in experimental-type designs. Introduction to Research, 4th ed., 190–204.
- Grip Strength.2nd ed. American Society of Hand Therapists, Chicago1992
- Grip and pinch strength: normative data for adults.Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1985; 66: 69-74
- Interinstrument reliability of the Jamar electronic dynamometer and pinch gauge compared with the Jamar hydraulic dynamometer and B&L engineering mechanical pinch gauge.Am J Occup Ther. 2013; 67: 480-483
- Comparison of Rolyan and Jamar dynamometers for measuring grip strength.Occup Ther Int. 2002; 9: 201-209
JHT Read for Credit
Record your answers on the Return Answer Form found on the tear-out coupon at the back of this issue or to complete online and use a credit card, go to JHTReadforCredit.com. There is only one best answer for each question.
- #1.The study design is
- b.case series
- c.prospective cohort
- d.cross sectional research
- #2.The study sought to compare
- a.grip to pinch in a population of Millennials
- b.lateral pinch to three jaw chuck pinch in Millennials
- c.established norms to a population of Millennials
- d.grip and pinch in senior citizens to Millennials
- #3.The test population typically performed more _____________ than the established group
- a.technology use
- b.work from home tasks
- c.intellectually challenging work
- d.bilateral tasks at work
- #4.The authors cite Stringer when suggesting norms be up-dated every
- a.5-10 years
- b.10-20 years
- c.30 years
- d.50 years
- #5.The findings confirmed that both male and females had almost identical differences in comparing the established groups to the test groups
When submitting to the HTCC for re-certification, please batch your JHT RFC certificates in groups of 3 or more to get full credit.
Published online: January 09, 2016
Accepted: December 27, 2015
Received in revised form: December 14, 2015
Received: September 16, 2015
© 2016 Hanley & Belfus, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
ScienceDirectAccess this article on ScienceDirect
- Corrigendum to comparative study of millennials' (age 20-34 years) grip and lateral pinch with the norms' [Journal of Hand Therapy Volume 29, Issue 4, October–December 2016, Pages 483-488]Journal of Hand TherapyVol. 33Issue 1
- Comparative study of millennials (age 20-34 years) grip and lateral pinch with the normsJournal of Hand TherapyVol. 30Issue 1