Scientific/Clinical Article| Volume 29, ISSUE 4, P483-488, October 2016

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Comparative study of millennials' (age 20-34 years) grip and lateral pinch with the norms

  • Elizabeth Fain
    Corresponding author. Occupational Therapy Department, Winston-Salem State University, 446 F.L. Atkins Building, 601 S. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, Winston-Salem, NC 27110, USA. Tel.: +1 336 750 8854; fax: +1 336 750 3173.
    Winston-Salem State University, 446 F.L. Atkins Building, 601 S. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, Winston-Salem, NC 27110, USA
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  • Cara Weatherford
    Winston-Salem State University, 446 F.L. Atkins Building, 601 S. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, Winston-Salem, NC 27110, USA
    Search for articles by this author
Published:January 09, 2016DOI:


      Study Design

      Cross-sectional research design.


      Clinical practice continues to use normative data for grip and pinch measurements that were established in 1985. There is no updated norms despite different hand usage patterns in today's society.

      Purpose of the Study

      Measuring and comparing grip and pinch strengths with normative data is a valid method to determine hand function. This research was implemented to compare the grip and pinch measurements obtained from healthy millennials to the established norms and to describe hand usage patterns for millennials.


      Grip and lateral pinch measurements were obtained from a sample of 237 healthy millennials (ages 20-34 years).


      Strength scores were statistically lower that older normative data in all millennial grip strengths, with the exception of the women in the age group of 30-34 years. Specifically, this statistically significant trend was observed in all male grip strengths, as well as in women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). However, the lateral pinch data reflected was similar to the older norms with variances of 0.5-1 kg.


      Current data reflect statistically significant differences from the norms for all male grip measurements, as well as for women in the age group of 20-24 years (bilateral grip) and 25-29 years (right grip). No statistical significance was observed in the independent-sample t tests for the lateral pinch in men of all age groups. Statistical significance was noted for lateral pinch for female age groups for the left hand (20-24 years) and for bilateral lateral pinches (30-34 years).

      Level of evidence



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      JHT Read for Credit

      Quiz: #446

      Record your answers on the Return Answer Form found on the tear-out coupon at the back of this issue or to complete online and use a credit card, go to There is only one best answer for each question.
      • #1.
        The study design is
        • a.
        • b.
          case series
        • c.
          prospective cohort
        • d.
          cross sectional research
      • #2.
        The study sought to compare
        • a.
          grip to pinch in a population of Millennials
        • b.
          lateral pinch to three jaw chuck pinch in Millennials
        • c.
          established norms to a population of Millennials
        • d.
          grip and pinch in senior citizens to Millennials
      • #3.
        The test population typically performed more _____________ than the established group
        • a.
          technology use
        • b.
          work from home tasks
        • c.
          intellectually challenging work
        • d.
          bilateral tasks at work
      • #4.
        The authors cite Stringer when suggesting norms be up-dated every
        • a.
          5-10 years
        • b.
          10-20 years
        • c.
          30 years
        • d.
          50 years
      • #5.
        The findings confirmed that both male and females had almost identical differences in comparing the established groups to the test groups
        • a.
        • b.
      When submitting to the HTCC for re-certification, please batch your JHT RFC certificates in groups of 3 or more to get full credit.

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