Advertisement

Ergonomic design of handheld tools to prevent trauma to the hand and upper extremity

  • Susan L. Johnson
    Correspondence
    Reprint requests to Susan L. Johnson, OTR, CVE, The Institute for Hand Rehabilitation, 1715 North Weber, Suite 150, Colorado Springs, CO 80907.
    Affiliations
    Institute for Hand Rehabilitation, Colorado Springs, Colorado
    Search for articles by this author
      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.

      Abstract

      This article provides a literature review of the ergonomic design of handheld tools. Too often the handle of the tool that connects the worker to his or her work becomes the cause of cumulative trauma within industry. With increasing costs of workers’ compensation, increasing work-related injuries, and increasing need for biomechanical alterations of work station designs, industries are developing new strategies. Safety and personnel managers are now more likely to ask for budgets that include work-station analysis to reduce the incidence of cumulative trauma. This article presents the correct ergonomic design of tools and work stations for work analyses.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Hand Therapy
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Silverstein BA
        The prevalence of upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders in industry. The University of Michigan, Occupational Health and Safety Engineering, 1985
      1. Proposed Strategies for the Prevention of Leading Work-Related Diseases and Injuries. Associated Schools of Public Health under a cooperative agreement with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1986: 19
      2. Lewis JH: Final Report of the Independent Study of the Colorado Workers’ Compensation System.

        • Armstrong TJ
        Ergonomics and cumulative trauma disorders.
        Hand Clinics. August 1986; Vol. 2: 553-565
        • Armstrong T
        An ergonomics guide to carpal tunnel syndrome. AIHAJ Ergonomic Guide Series, Akron, Ohio1983
        • Meagher SW
        Human factors engineering.
        Contemp Orthop. 1987; 8: 73-80
        • Meagher SW
        Tool design for prevention of hand and wrist injuries.
        Hand Surg. 1987; 12A: 855-857
        • Chaffin DB
        • Andersson GBJ
        Occupational Biomechanics. John Wiley & Sons, New York1984: 362
        • Meagher SW
        Design of hand tools for control of cumulative trauma disorders: An ergonomic interventions to prevent musculoskeletal injuries in industry.
        in: America Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI1987: 111-115
        • Meagher SW
        Hand tools: Cumulative trauma disorders caused by improper use of design elements.
        Trends in ergonomics. Human Factors. 1986; 3: 581-587
        • Gowitzke BA
        • Milnar M
        Understanding the Scientific Basis of Human Movement. 2nd ed. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore1980: 95
        • Greenberg L
        • et al.
        Workers and Their Tools: A Guide to the Ergonomie Design of Hand Tools and Small Presses. Pendell Publishing Company, Midland, Michigan1977
        • Ayoub MM
        • LoPresti P
        The determination of an optimum size cylindrical handle by use of electrobiography.
        Ergonomics. 1971; 4: 503-518
        • Webb Associates
        Anthropometric Source Book. Vol. II. NASA Reference 1024, Washington, DC1978: 43-47
        • Tichauer ER
        The biomechanical basis of ergonomics. Wiley Interscience, New York1978: 41-43
        • Tichauer ER
        The biomechanical basis of ergonomics. Wiley Interscience, New York1978: 69-70
        • Chaffin DB
        Localized muscle fatigue—definition in measurement.
        J Occup Med. 1973; 15: 346-354
        • Drillis R
        • Contini R
        Department of Health Body Segment Parameters. University School of Engineering, Welfare, New York, New York1966
        • Chaffin DB
        • Andersson G
        Hand tool design guidelines.
        in: Chaffin DB Andersson G Occupational Biomechanics. John Wiley, New York1984: 355-368
        • Armstrong T
        • Foulke J
        • Joseph B
        • et al.
        An investigation of cumulative trauma disorders in a poultry processing plant.
        Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1982; 43: 103-116
      3. Wilkes B, et al: Job demands and work health in machine-paced poultry inspection. Scand Work Environ Health 7:12–19.

        • Comiash S
        • Bottoms E
        The skin and friction: Deviations from Amton’s laws and effects of hydration and lubrication.
        Br J Dermatol. 1971; 84: 37-43
        • Hertzberg T
        Some contributions of applied physical anthropometry.
        Ann NY Acad Sci. 1955; 63: 616-629
        • Tichauer ER
        Some aspects of stress of forearm and hand in industry.
        J Occup Med. 1966; 2: 63
      4. Van Bergeijk E: Selection of power tools and mechanical assist for control of occupational hand and wrist injuries. Handout presented at 1985 Ergonomie Conference at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

        • Benedict K
        • et al.
        The hypothenar hammer syndrome.
        Radiology. 1974; 111: 57-60
        • Lindquist B
        How to Design Tool Handles and Triggers for Low Physical Load, Ergonomie Tools of Our Time. T.R. Tryck, Stockholm1986: 24-31
        • Tichauer ER
        Ergonomie Principles to Hand Tool Design. Ergonomics Guide. New York University Dept. of Industrial Engineering, New York1977